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Venlafaxine uses

Have your blood pressure checked often. Talk with your doctor. Some of the side effects that can occur with buspirone may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. XR capsules in placebo-controlled clinical trials for GAD discontinued treatment due to an adverse experience, compared with 12% of the 555 placebo-treated patients in those studies. Adverse reactions, some of which were serious, have been reported in patients who have recently been discontinued from a monoamine oxidase inhibitor MAOI and started on venlafaxine, or who have recently had venlafaxine therapy discontinued prior to initiation of an MAOI. These reactions have included tremor, myoclonus, diaphoresis, nausea, vomiting, flushing, dizziness, hyperthermia with features resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome, seizures, and death. In patients receiving antidepressants with pharmacological properties similar to venlafaxine in combination with an MAOI, there have also been reports of serious, sometimes fatal, reactions. For a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, these reactions have included hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, and mental status changes that include extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma. Some cases presented with features resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Severe hyperthermia and seizures, sometimes fatal, have been reported in association with the combined use of tricyclic antidepressants and MAOIs. These reactions have also been reported in patients who have recently discontinued these drugs and have been started on an MAOI. The effects of combined use of venlafaxine and MAOIs have not been evaluated in humans or animals. carbamazepine

Important information

Retrieved 6 August 2009. Venlafaxine is a substrate of P-gp which pumps it out of the brain. The gene encoding P-gp, ABCB1, has the rs2032583, with C and T. The majority of people about 70% of Europeans and 90% of East Asians have the TT variant. Prescription pain drugs will carry the FDA's strongest "black box" warning label. That label will warn of the risk of serious injury. Venlafaxine oral bioavailability was increased 2-3 fold, oral elimination half-life was approximately twice as long and oral clearance was reduced by more than half, compared to normal subjects. In hepatically impaired subjects, ODV oral elimination half-life was prolonged by about 40%, while oral clearance for ODV was similar to that for normal subjects. A large degree of intersubject variability was noted.

List of venlafaxine side effects

Although there have been several studies of depression in older adults, these generally involved a single medication in comparison with placebo and lasted fewer than 12 weeks, Forester says. What are the ingredients in venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules? Ask your doctor how long you should wait between your doses of these drugs. XR and weight loss agents is not recommended.

Prescribing information for venlafaxine

Wort see WARNINGS: Serotonin Syndrome. If concomitant treatment of Venlafaxine tablets with these drugs is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS, Serotonin Syndrome. The concomitant use of Venlafaxine tablets with tryptophan supplements is not recommended see WARNINGS, Serotonin Syndrome. Treatment-emergent anorexia was more commonly reported for Venlafaxine-treated 11% than placebo-treated patients 2% in the pool of short-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled depression studies.

Retrieved 3 April 2011

SSRIs and SNRIs, including Venlafaxine tablets, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anti-coagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies case-control and cohort design have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to SSRIs and SNRIs use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages. Wyeth Pharmaceuticals provided the venlafaxine XR. Glaxo SmithKline provided the paroxetine. Deep tissue may stimulate circulation and release chronic patterns of muscular tension. Take this medication by with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually once or twice a day. Swallow the capsules whole. not crush, chew, or dissolve the capsules. Rodents given 2 to 20 times the usual maximum human dose of haloperidol by oral or parenteral routes showed an increase in incidence of resorption, reduced fertility, delayed delivery and pup mortality. No teratogenic effect has been reported in rats, rabbits or dogs at dosages within this range, but cleft palate has been observed in mice given 15 times the usual maximum human dose. Cleft palate in mice appears to be a nonspecific response to stress or nutritional imbalance as well as to a variety of drugs, and there is no evidence to relate this phenomenon to predictable human risk for most of these agents.

Journal of Medical Toxicology

In an analysis of ECGs obtained in 769 patients treated with Effexor and 450 patients treated with placebo in controlled clinical trials, the only statistically significant difference observed was for heart rate, ie, a mean increase from baseline of 4 beats per minute for Effexor. The risks associated with longer-term Venlafaxine hydrochloride extended release capsules use were assessed in an open-label study of children and adolescents who received Venlafaxine hydrochloride extended release capsules for up to six months. The children and adolescents in the study had increases in weight that were less than expected based on data from age- and sex-matched peers. XR is an extended-release capsule for oral administration that contains venlafaxine hydrochloride, a structurally novel antidepressant. See FDA-approved patient labeling Medication Guide. Anon. FDA issues public health advisory entitled: Reports of suicidality in pediatric patients being treated with antidepressant medications for major depressive disorder MDD. FDA Talk Paper. People who take Venlafaxine tablets close in time to an MAOI may have serious or even life threatening side effects. Venlafaxine. All 14 patients recovered without sequelae. Most patients reported no symptoms. Among the remaining patients, somnolence was the most commonly reported symptom. Thundiyil JG, Kearney TE, Olson KR March 2007. PDF. Journal of Medical Toxicology. The mechanism explaining this finding is unknown. Safety and efficacy not established. Not approved for use in children. Growth rate reduction and weight loss may occur. Venlafaxine tablets can cause sleepiness or may affect your ability to make decisions, think clearly, or react quickly. You should not drive, operate heavy machinery, or do other dangerous activities until you know how Venlafaxine tablets affects you. Do not drink alcohol while using Venlafaxine tablets. Use with caution in patients with diseases or conditions that could affect hemodynamic responses or metabolism and whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in heart rate eg, heart failure, hyperthyroidism, recent MI. How should I take Venlafaxine tablets? ODV were unaltered by age or gender differences. crestor

Indications and usage of venlafaxine

Position the index finger of the other hand to support the neck of the ampule. Position the thumb so that it covers the colored point and is parallel to the colored rings. Severe allergic reactions rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue; chest pain; excitation; fainting; severe drowsiness; unusual weakness. Pay close attention to any changes, especially sudden changes, in mood, behaviors, thoughts, or feelings. This is very important when an antidepressant medicine is started or when the dose is changed. Tell your doctor if your condition lasts or gets worse. The opinions expressed in WebMD User-generated content areas like communities, reviews, ratings, or blogs are solely those of the User, who may or may not have medical or scientific training. These opinions do not represent the opinions of WebMD. User-generated content areas are not reviewed by a WebMD physician or any member of the WebMD editorial staff for accuracy, balance, objectivity, or any other reason except for compliance with our Terms and Conditions. Hg up to 6 months. An encephalopathic syndrome characterized by weakness, lethargy, fever, tremulousness and confusion, extrapyramidal symptoms, leukocytosis, elevated serum enzymes, BUN, and fasting blood sugar followed by irreversible brain damage has occurred in a few patients treated with lithium plus Haldol. A causal relationship between these events and the concomitant administration of lithium and Haldol has not been established; however, patients receiving such combined therapy should be monitored closely for early evidence of neurological toxicity and treatment discontinued promptly if such signs appear. Do not take an MAOI within 7 days of stopping Venlafaxine tablets unless directed to do so by your physician. Do not start venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules in a patient who is being treated with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue, because there is an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. But you may also need something else. For example, your doctor may suggest an anti-anxiety or sleep aid medicine for so you can relax and sleep better. XR was significantly more effective than placebo on change from baseline to endpoint on the LSAS total score. Children, teenagers, and young adults who take antidepressants to treat depression or other mental illnesses may be more likely to become suicidal than children, teenagers, and young adults who do not take antidepressants to treat these conditions. However, experts are not sure about how great this risk is and how much it should be considered in deciding whether a child or teenager should take an antidepressant. Children younger than 18 years of age should not normally take venlafaxine, but in some cases, a doctor may decide that venlafaxine is the best medication to treat a child's condition. O-desmethylVenlafaxine ODV also was unaffected. Be sure to mention any of the following: anticoagulants 'blood thinners' such as warfarin Coumadin; amiodarone Cordarone, Pacerone; other antidepressants; cimetidine Tagamet; clozapine Clozaril; diuretics 'water pills'; duloxetine Cymbalta; haloperidol Haldol; imipramine Tofranil; indinavir Crixivan; ketoconazole Nizoral; linezolid Zyvox; lithium; medications for anxiety, mental illness, pain, seizures, or weight loss; medications for migraine such as almotriptan Axert eletriptan Relpax frovatriptan Frova naratriptan Amerge rizatriptan Maxalt sumatriptan Imitrex and zolmitriptan Zomig; methadone Dolophine; methylene blue; phentermine Adipex P, Ionamin; ritonavir Norvir; sedatives; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs such as citalopram Celexa escitalopram Lexapro fluoxetine Prozac, Sarafem fluvoxamine Luvox paroxetine Paxil and sertraline Zoloft; sibutramine Meridia; sleeping pills; tramadol Ultram; and tranquilizers. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects. Hg for placebo. However, there is a dose dependency for blood pressure increase see WARNINGS. Whyte IM, Dawson AH, Buckley NA; Dawson; Buckley May 2003. PDF. QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians. serevent

What is venlafaxine

Camardo J. Dear healthcare provider letter regarding changes to the prescribing information regarding Effexor XR venlafaxine HCl Extended-Release Capsules and Effexor venlafaxine HCl Tablets. What are the possible side effects of Venlafaxine tablets? The exact cause of hot flashes is not known, but they may be related to changes in circulation. Keep the tablet in its blister pack until you are ready to take it. Open the package and peel back the foil. Do not push a tablet through the foil or you may damage the tablet. Barlow DH. Venlafaxine for hot flushes. Lancet. Canada, and Puerto Rico from June 2005 through March 2009. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SSRIs and SNRIs are coadministered with warfarin. Patients receiving warfarin therapy should be carefully monitored when venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules are initiated or discontinued. The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. Generic versions of these drugs will also include this labeling. order generic glucophage

Petit, J; Sansone, RA 2011

NDC 0008-0704-07, bottle of 30 tablets in unit of use package. In dialysis patients, ODV elimination half-life was prolonged by about 142% and clearance was reduced by about 56%, compared to normal subjects. A large degree of intersubject variability was noted. Talk to your doctor about using trazodone safely. F in a dry place. Prescription corticosteroids provide relief for inflamed areas of the body by easing swelling, redness, and allergic reactions. XR. This patient recovered and no other specific problems were found. The patient had moderate dizziness, nausea, numb hands and feet, and hot-cold spells 5 days after the overdose. These symptoms resolved over the next week. Patients should be advised that taking venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules can cause mild pupillary dilation, which in susceptible individuals, can lead to an episode of angle closure glaucoma. Preexisting glaucoma is almost always open-angle glaucoma because angle closure glaucoma, when diagnosed, can be treated definitively with iridectomy. Open-angle glaucoma is not a risk factor for angle closure glaucoma. Take Abilify exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results. Do not take this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. The patients were assigned to one of three groups: paroxetine, venlafaxine, or placebo. Use with caution in patients with a history of seizures. 1 3 Discontinue therapy in any patient who develops seizures. Pollack MH, Lepola U, Koponen H et al. A double-blind study of the efficacy of venlafaxine extended-release, paroxetine, and placebo in the treatment of panic disorder. Depress Anxiety. In one longer-term study, adult outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder who had responded during an 8-week open trial on Venlafaxine hydrochloride extended release capsules 75, 150, or 225 mg, qAM were randomized to continuation of their same Venlafaxine hydrochloride extended release capsules dose or to placebo, for up to 26 weeks of observation for relapse. It may harm an unborn baby. Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Consider cautiously tapering dosage during third trimester of pregnancy prior to delivery. 1 3 30 See Pregnancy under Cautions.

Venlafaxine forms and strengths

Caution patient not to prepare the mixture ahead of time and store. The clinical relevance of this finding is unknown; however, exercise caution with coadministration. Closely monitor blood pressure. Advise patients taking venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules not to use concomitantly other products containing venlafaxine or desvenlafaxine. Absolute bioavailability is about 45%. Trazodone may cause a condition that affects the rhythm QT prolongation. Weight loss reported in adults and pediatric patients. a b See Obesity under Uses. It is also used to prevent and treat after surgery. The primary care companion for CNS disorders. 13 5. Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Do not consider WebMD User-generated content as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. WebMD understands that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified health care provider. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or dial 911 immediately. Other kinds of sleeping pills are often not very helpful for people who have fibromyalgia. brand of progesterone

Venlafaxine dosage

Some findings show that may alter chemistry and help increase pain tolerance. Measure liquid medicine with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one. Clinical studies of haloperidol did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not consistently identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. It may take 4 weeks or longer before your symptoms improve. Keep using the medication as directed. Do not stop using Cymbalta without first talking to your doctor. You may have unpleasant side effects if you stop taking this medicine suddenly. Renal elimination of venlafaxine and its metabolites is the primary route of excretion. If treatment is to be discontinued or the dose reduced after more than 1 wk of therapy, gradually taper the dose and monitor patient for withdrawal symptoms. If significant withdrawal symptoms develop, reinstitute previous dosing schedule and attempt a less-rapid tapering regimen after patient has stabilized. Social Anxiety Disorder DSM-IV is characterized by a marked and persistent fear of 1 or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others. Exposure to the feared situation almost invariably provokes anxiety, which may approach the intensity of a panic attack. The feared situations are avoided or endured with intense anxiety or distress. The avoidance, anxious anticipation, or distress in the feared situations interferes significantly with the person's normal routine, occupationalor academic functioning, or social activities or relationships, or there is a marked distress about having the phobias. Lesser degrees of performance anxiety or shyness generally do not require psychopharmacological treatment. costco brand for motrin

Venlafaxine drug interactions

Venlafaxine is contraindicated in children, adolescents and young adults. How Does Exercise Help Fibromyalgia Symptoms? Rothschild tells WebMD. “How long a person needs to stay on an antidepressant depends on how many episodes of depression the person has had. For example, someone who has had only one episode should stay on medication for six months to a year before tapering off. The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy. Thase ME, Clayton AH, Haight BR, Thompson AH, Modell JG, Johnston JA 2006. "A double-blind comparison between bupropion XL and venlafaxine XR: sexual functioning, antidepressant efficacy, and tolerability". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. This medication may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert. Avoid getting up too fast from a sitting or lying position, or you may feel dizzy. Dizziness or severe drowsiness can cause falls, fractures, or other injuries. Stopping an antidepressant medicine suddenly can cause other symptoms. nootropil

Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology

Periodically reassess patient to determine need for maintenance treatment and the appropriate dose for such treatment. Many drugs can interact with duloxetine. Not all possible interactions are listed here. If your symptoms do not improve or if they become worse, check with your doctor. Drug release is controlled by diffusion through the coating membrane on the spheroids and is not pH-dependent. Sanz EJ, De-Las-Cuevas C, Kiuru A et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnant women and neonatal withdrawal syndrome: a database analysis. Lancet. May impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. The US Food and Drug Administration body FDA requires all antidepressants, including venlafaxine, to carry a with a generic warning about a possible suicide risk. NDC 0008-0833-22, bottle of 90 capsules in unit of use package. Retrieved 19 August 2005. Low levels of or in the may also increase your risk of QT prolongation. Frequent: bronchitis, dyspnea; Infrequent: asthma, chest congestion, epistaxis, hyperventilation, laryngismus, laryngitis, pneumonia, voice alteration; Rare: atelectasis, hemoptysis, hypoventilation, hypoxia, larynx edema, pleurisy, pulmonary embolus, sleep apnea. Venlafaxine plasma concentrations were higher in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers than in extensive metabolizers. AUC of venlafaxine and ODV were similar in poor and extensive metabolizers. No dosage adjustment is required.

Side effects of venlafaxine

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor MAOI. Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are not sure if you take an MAOI, including the antibiotic linezolid. Frequent: ecchymosis; Infrequent: anemia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, thrombocythemia, thrombocytopenia; Rare: basophilia, bleeding time increased, cyanosis, eosinophilia, lymphocytosis, multiple myeloma, purpura. MAO inhibitor, such as isocarboxazid Marplan phenelzine Nardil selegiline Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar and tranylcypromine Parnate or if you have stopped taking one of these medications within the past 14 days. Your doctor will probably tell you that you should not take venlafaxine. If you stop taking venlafaxine, your doctor will tell you that you should wait at least 7 days before you start to take an MAO inhibitor. Do not stop taking your prescription pain medicine unless told to do so by your professional. Over a 6-week period, there was evidence of adaptation to some adverse events with continued therapy eg, dizziness and nausea but less to other effects eg, abnormal ejaculation and dry mouth. Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors have no sexual side effects, unlike many other antidepressants. Venlafaxine increased suicide risk by 60% statistically significant as compared to no treatment. At the same time, Prozac halved the suicide risk. II Clinical Trials Committee. Buckley NA, McManus PR. Fatal toxicity of serotoninergic and other antidepressant drugs: analysis of United Kingdom mortality data. Of the serum chemistry and hematology parameters monitored during clinical trials with Venlafaxine tablets, a statistically significant difference with placebo was seen only for serum cholesterol. Antidepressants work by targeting certain chemicals in the called neurotransmitters. These chemicals affect mood and emotion. But exactly how antidepressants lessen depression is unclear. The most commonly reported events in overdosage include tachycardia, changes in level of consciousness ranging from somnolence to coma mydriasis, seizures, and vomiting. Cause problems with serotonin, a that affects mood. Some medical conditions may interact with venlafaxine. generic diovan equate

Retrieved 17 June 2008

This is known as a carbapenem-type antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Of the serum chemistry and hematology parameters monitored during clinical trials with Effexor, a statistically significant difference with placebo was seen only for serum cholesterol. MDD. Venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release capsules should be used cautiously in patients with a history of mania or hypomania. Elderly people may be at greater risk for this. BP, and serum cholesterol concentrations. brand name norfloxacin prices

Brand of venlafaxine

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Use of venlafaxine

Venlafaxine consumer information

The unit of use package is intended to be dispensed as a unit. Brent P. Forester, MD, chief of the Division of Geriatric Psychiatry at Mclean Hospital. Keep all medical and lab appointments. Doses statistically significantly superior to placebo. Published retrospective studies report that venlafaxine overdosage may be associated with an increased risk of fatal outcomes compared to that observed with SSRI antidepressant products, but lower than that for tricyclic antidepressants. Epidemiological studies have shown that venlafaxine-treated patients have a higher pre-existing burden of suicide risk factors than SSRI-treated patients. The extent to which the finding of an increased risk of fatal outcomes can be attributed to the toxicity of venlafaxine in overdosage as opposed to some characteristics of venlafaxine-treated patients is not clear. Prescriptions for Effexor should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

Venlafaxine side effects

Give an antidepressant time to work. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design that have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SSRIs and SNRIs are coadministered with warfarin. CYP3A4 Inhibitors: In vitro studies indicate that Venlafaxine is likely metabolized to a minor, less active metabolite, N-desmethylVenlafaxine, by CYP3A4. Because CYP3A4 is typically a minor pathway relative to CYP2D6 in the metabolism of Venlafaxine, the potential for a clinically significant drug interaction between drugs that inhibit CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and Venlafaxine is small.

How to take venlafaxine

The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs, including Venlafaxine tablets, alone but particularly with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, and St. John's Wort and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue. Patients, their families, and their caregivers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia psychomotor restlessness hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment and when the dose is adjusted up or down. Families and caregivers of patients should be advised to look for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt. Such symptoms should be reported to the patient's prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms. Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly changes in the medication.

Effexor XR or placebo

Only you and your mental health provider can make the decision that is right for you, however. Published retrospective studies report that Venlafaxine overdosage may be associated with an increased risk of fatal outcomes compared to that observed with SSRI antidepressant products, but lower than that for tricyclic antidepressants. Epidemiological studies have shown that Venlafaxine-treated patients have a higher pre-existing burden of suicide risk factors than SSRI-treated patients. The extent to which the finding of an increased risk of fatal outcomes can be attributed to the toxicity of Venlafaxine in over dosage as opposed to some characteristics of Venlafaxine-treated patients is not clear. Prescriptions for Venlafaxine tablets should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

The mechanism of the antidepressant action of venlafaxine in humans is believed to be associated with its potentiation of neurotransmitter activity in the CNS. Preclinical studies have shown that venlafaxine and its active metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine ODV are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake and weak inhibitors of dopamine reuptake. There is no known effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia; antiparkinson agents usually do not alleviate the symptoms of this syndrome. It is suggested that all antipsychotic agents be discontinued if these symptoms appear. Should it be necessary to reinstitute treatment, or increase the dosage of the agent, or switch to a different antipsychotic agent, this syndrome may be masked.

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